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زئونوزها - بیماری های مشترک انسان ودام - آسیای شرقیflu(H5N1 HPAI

چهارشنبه 18 اسفند‌ماه سال 1389 ساعت 01:31 ق.ظ

 

 

بسم الله الرحمن الرحیم

(H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influence (H5N1 HPAI

منبع: http://www.fao.org/docrep/013/al848e/al848e00.pdf  

ترجمه : مهدی ابراهیمی  

H5N1 آنفلوانزای فوق حاد پرندگان

Since late 2003, H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influence (H5N1 HPAI) has caused outbreaks primarily in poultry across Africa, Asia and Europe, with wild bird outbreaks most frequently documented in the central Asia flyway and parts of the African-Eurasian flyway. H5N1 HPAI has persisted over several years in many areas and, as of 2011, five countries are considered   ndemically infected. Viral persistence poses a threat to animal (domestic and wild) and human health, as well as impacting livelihoods and food security of millions of people.

از اواخر سال 2003، H5N1 آنفلوانزای بسیار بیماریزای پرندگان (H5N1 HPAI) موجب شیوع بیماری بطوراولیه در طیور  سراسر آفریقا، آسیا و اروپا گردید، شیوع بیماری درپرنده های وحشی در اغلب موارد در مسیرهای مهاجرت هوایی پرندگان مهاجر در آسیای مرکزی و بخش هایی از راه هوایی پرندگان مهاجر آفریقایی اروپایی و اسیایی مستند گردیده  است . 
 
HPAI H5N1 چندین سال در نقاط متفاوتی حضورداشته واز سال 2011 در پنج کشور بصورت آندمیک  درآمده است. حالت پایدارو مقاومت ویروس، سلامتی انسان و حیوانات (اهلی وحیات وحش ) را تهدید وعلاوه برآن معیشت وامنیت غذایی ملیونها انسان را باخطر مواجه کرده است.

While it has been empirically demonstrated that H5N1 HPAI risk in Southeast Asia is related to domestic ducks grazing openly in rice agricultural systems and human densities, relatively little is known about the interplay between persistence and dispersal. In fact, a hypothesis that had never been studied is that the global persistence of H5N1 HPAI results from the interplay between the high capacity to persist in domestic poultry in localized areas and sporadic long-distance introduction events through migratory birds.

 درحالی که چریدن آزاد اردک ها در مزارع برنج کشورهای آسیای جنوب شرقی ومتراکم بودن جمعیت انسانی بعنوان عامل موثردر شیوع H5N1 HPAI شرح داده شده ، رابطه کمی بین مقاومت عامل بیماری و گسترش آن بدست آمده است .درحقیقت فرضیه ای که هرگزمطالعه نشده است آن است که مقاومت وپایداری جهانی H5N1 HPAI  اثرمتقابل بالا بودن ظرفیت مقاومت عامل بیماریزا در طیوراهلی  و اثرات جابجایی های طولانی و دوره ای پرندگان مهاجر می باشد.

 

 همه گیری های مهم از سال ۲۰۰۶تا ۲۰۱۱

MOST RECENT H5N1 AI OUTBREAKS 2006-2011

Note: This list has been compiled on the basis of information up to 31 January 2011.

2011

January Bangladesh, Cambodia, China (Hong Kong SAR), Egypt, Japan,

Korea (Republic of), Myanmar

2010

December Indonesia, Viet Nam

October Nepal

June Russian Federation

May China, Israel, Mongolia

April Lao PDR

March Bhutan, Bulgaria, Myanmar, Romania

January India

2009

March Germany

2008

November Thailand

September Togo

July Nigeria

June Pakistan

May United Kingdom

March Turkey

February Switzerland, Ukraine

January Saudi Arabia

2007

December Benin, Iran, Poland

October Afghanistan

August France

July Czech Republic

June Ghana, Malaysia

April Kuwait

January Côte d'Ivoire, Hungary

2006

August Sudan

July Spain

June Niger

May Burkina Faso, Denmark

April Djibouti, Sweden, West Bank & Gaza Strip

March Albania, Austria, Azerbaijan, Cameroon, Croatia, Greece, Jordan,

Kazakhstan, Serbia, Slovenia

February Bosnia-Herzegovina, Georgia, Iraq, Italy, Slovakia

 

 

 خلاصه همه گیری های تایید شده آنفلوانزای فوق حاد پرندگان

S

(As of

Sources:

Note: officially confirmed H5N1 outbreak or occurrence. Dates of the last outbreak within this year are in bold.

AFRICA

Benin 7 November 2007 15 December 2007 Domestic poultry

-

Burkina Faso 1 March 2006 20 May 2006 Domestic poultry - wild birds

-

Cameroon 21 February 2006 28 March 2006 Domestic poultry – wild birds

-

Côte d'Ivoire 31 March 2006 31 January 2007 Domestic poultry – wild birds

-

Djibouti 6 April 2006 6 April 2006 Domestic poultry 1 /

0

Egypt 17 February 2006

– donkeys*

122 /

28 January 2011 Domestic poultry – wild birds40

Ghana 14 April 2007 13 June 2007 Domestic poultry

-

Niger 6 February 2006 1 June 2006 Domestic poultry

-

Nigeria 16 January 2006 22 July 2008 Domestic poultry – wild birds 1 /

1

Sudan 25 March 2006 4 August 2006 Domestic poultry

-

Togo 6 June 2007 8 September 2008 Domestic poultry

-

A

First outbreak  Latest outbreak  Animals affected  to date  Human cases / deaths to date

SIA

Afghanistan 2 March 2006 2 October 2007 Domestic poultry – wild birds -

Bangladesh 5 February 2007

24 January 2011 Domestic poultry 1 / 0

Bhutan 18 February 2010 14 March 2010 Domestic poultry -

Cambodia 12 January 2004

China 20 January 2004 9 May 2010

wild birds

Domestic poultry – wild birds40 /

China(Hong Kong SAR)19 January 2004 birds  

India 27 January 2006 30 January 2010 Domestic poultry -

Indonesia 2 February 2004 December 2010 Domestic poultry – pigs (withno clinical signs)171/

Japan 28 December 2003

– raccoons (no clinical signs)-Kazakhstan 22 July 2005 10 March 2006 Domestic poultry – wild birds -Korea, Rep. of 10 December 2003

Lao PDR 15 January 2004 27 April 2010 Domestic poultry 2 /

Malaysia 7 August 2004 2 June 2007 Domestic poultry – wild birds -

Mongolia 10 August 2005 3 May 2010 Wild birds -

Myanmar 8 March 2006

Nepal 8 January 2009 25 October 2010 Domestic poultry -

Pakistan 23 February 2006 17 June 2008 Domestic poultry – wild birds 3 /

Thailand 23 January 2004 10 November 2008 Domestic poultry – wild birds– tiger25 /

Viet Nam 9 January 2004 2 December 2010 Domestic poultry 119/

28 January 2011 Domestic poultry – wild birds 10 / 82624 January 2011 Domestic poultry – Wild14130 January 2011 Domestic poultry – wild birds25 January 2011 Domestic poultry – wild birds -226 January 2011 Domestic poultry 1 / 011759

N

Iran 2 February 2006 10 December 2007 Domestic poultry - wild birds

-

Iraq 18 January 2006 1 February 2006 Domestic poultry – wild birds

3 / 2

Israel 16 March 2006 2 May 2010 Domestic poultry –Emu (zoo)

-Jordan 23 March 2006 23 March 2006 Domestic poultry -

Kuwait 23 February 2007 20 April 2007 Domestic poultry – wild birds- zoo birds

-

Saudi Arabia 12 March 2007 29 January 2008 Domestic poultry

-

West Bank & Gaza Strip 21 March 2006 2 April 2006 Domestic poultry

-

* Journal of Biomedical Science: http://www.jbiomedsci.com/content/17/1/25


EAR EAST

First outbreak  Latest outbreak  Animals affected  to dateHuman  cases / deaths to date

UMMARY OF CONFIRMED HPAI OUTBREAKS31 January 2011)OIE, European Commission (EC), FAO and national governments – WHO for human cases/deathsH5N1 unless otherwise indicated. Highlighted countries indicate those in which there has been only one 
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